abvd.org : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Mwotlap

Source/Author:  Alex Francois (fieldnotes 1997-2006) 
Notes:   
Problems:  I chose a strictly IPA transcription, except that prenasalised consonants are not spelled out, and yod is /y/ rather than /j/.
The cognacy column: I temporarily added the etyma themselves (either POc or PNCVanuatu, or even my own north Vanuatu reconstructions, with 2 stars) for the cognacy expert to make informed judgments -- knowing that Mwotlap can be extreme in its evolution -- e.g. /ɣɛy/ 'swim' < *kaRu. (I'm afraid my comments in that column were sometimes chopped out by the programme) 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Dr Alexandre François  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:North and Central Vanuatu:Northeast Vanuatu-Banks Islands:East Vanuatu 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand na-mnɪ-k my hand(s) (*banic) 14  
2 left na-ɣla (*É£alawa) 14  
3 right na-mtʊ (*matuqa) 5, 37  
4 leg/foot na-yŋɪ-k (**raÅ‹o) 17  
5 to walk ßanßan (*pano) 2  
6 road/path na-mtɛhal (*jalan) 1  
7 to come ßan mɛ (*pano + *m) 23, 1  
8 to turn word info ßɪy reverse direction (**ßir) 24  
8 to turn word info hɪsɪm change paths at crossroads; 126  
9 to swim ɣɛy (*kaÊ€u) 5  
10 dirty nɛ-lɛm (**leba) 9  
11 dust nʊ-wʊwʊ   1, 50  
12 skin ni-pni-k my skin (**ßiniti) 28  
13 back word info nɪ-klɛ-k my back (*gula-) 10  
14 belly na-tkpʷɛ-k my belly (*tobwa) 36  
15 bone ni-hiy (*suÊ€i) 52  
16 intestines nɪ-tna (*tinaqe) 1  
17 liver na-ßay (**ßara) 17  
18 breast ni-sis (*susu) 1  
19 shoulder na-kpʷtɪɣ bɪnɪ-k start of my arm/hand (*bwatu (?)) 36, 65  
20 to know, be knowledgeable ɪɣlal know (*kilal) 18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable nɔ-lɔlmɛyɛn be knowledgeable 86  
21 to think dɪm (*domi) 13  
22 to fear mɪtɪɣtɛɣ (*matakut) 1  
23 blood na-day (*draÊ€aq) 1  
24 head ni-kpʷti-k my head (*bwatu) 9  
25 neck nɪ-nlɪ-k my neck (**daleqo) 42  
26 hair word info n-ili-k my hair (*pulu) 31  
27 nose ni-mdi-k my nose (**madu-) 14  
28 to breathe ŋmʷʊkhɛɣ (**mabus-ak) 14  
29 to sniff, smell hɪmɛn (?? + **mad) 15  
30 mouth na-ŋyɛ-k my external mouth/lips 7  
30 mouth na-plɛ-k my internal mouth (**βal) 42  
31 tooth nɪ-lwɪ-k my teeth (*lipon) 1, 35  
32 tongue na-ɣaymɛ-k my tongue (*kaÊ€amaya) 7, 14  
33 to laugh yɪyɪ (<**riwa) 90  
34 to cry tɛŋ (*taÅ‹is) 1  
35 to vomit lʊlʊ + *luaq 8  
35 to vomit kpʷɔap      
36 to spit ninih (*(q)anusi) 14, 84  
37 to eat ɣɛn (*kani) 1  
38 to chew word info ŋɛ general term 12  
38 to chew word info kamkam chew betel    
39 to cook word info kpʷaŋyis cook in earth oven (**bwaraÅ‹i) 42  
40 to drink in (*inum) 1  
41 to bite ŋit   58  
42 to suck saŋmʷ suck/chew sugarcane ((*jamu)) 21  
43 ear nɪ-dɪlŋɛ-k my ear(s) (*taliÅ‹a) 1, 40  
44 to hear yɔŋtɛɣ hear, feel (*roÅ‹oÊ€) 1, 55  
45 eye na-mtɛ-k my eyes (*mata) 1  
46 to see ɛt (?) 1, 89  
47 to yawn ɣayŋmʷa (**kaÊ€at +) 19  
48 to sleep mitiy (*maturuR) 1, 70  
49 to lie down word info ɛn (*qenop) 1  
50 to dream kpʷɔykpʷɔy (*boÊ€e) 10  
51 to sit haɣ (**sake) 72  
52 to stand tiɣ ((NOT *tuqu) 68  
53 person/human being n-ɛt (*qata (?)) 4  
54 man/male na-tŋmʷan (*qata + *mÊ·aqane) 1, 14  
55 woman/female na-lkpʷʊßɪn (?? + *pine) 1, 72  
56 child nɪtŋmʷɛy a child (*natu) 5, 8  
56 child inti-k my child 5  
57 husband iɣni-k my spouse (**É£unu-) 65  
58 wife iɣni-k my spouse (**É£unu-) 51  
59 mother ißɪ-k my mother (**ßeße) 20  
60 father itmɛ-k my father (*tama) 1  
61 house n-ɪŋmʷ (*Ê€umaq) 1  
62 thatch/roof nɔ-yɔt sago palm, thatch (*raun + *q) 1, 61  
63 name na-hɛ-k (**sasa- <?) 1, 34  
64 to say ßap (**ßaßa <) 13  
65 rope na-ɣayɣa liana, rope, string (? **kaÊ€o) 25, 56  
66 to tie up, fasten lɪɣ *likot 1, 39  
66 to tie up, fasten yɪt   77, 78  
67 to sew word info susuy (*susuÊ€i) 15, 59  
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info kay (**gara) 33  
71 to stab, pierce ɛs stab with knife 34  
71 to stab, pierce hiɣ prick (*sukit) 1, 8  
72 to hit word info laŋmʷ (**lamÊ·as)    
73 to steal bɛl (**balu) 23  
74 to kill wuh mat hit dead (**ßusi +) 26, 2  
75 to die, be dead mat (*mate) 1  
76 to live, be alive n-ɪh (**esu) 24  
77 to scratch word info ɣayɣay (**karo) 1  
78 to cut, hack word info tɔt (*totok) 3  
79 stick/wood nɪ-kpʷɪtɪnɣɛ (*bwatu 'he) 1  
80 to split word info Vb1 + wɔy (only as Vb2 in serialisation) (**ßora) 1  
81 sharp nɛ-hɛy (**sar[i,u]) 19  
82 dull, blunt nɛ-ŋmʷɛs   34  
83 to work word info muwumwu (**makui) 29  
84 to plant ßah **vaso 6  
84 to plant yuw for yams 9  
85 to choose ɛt yak lit. look + take away 30  
86 to grow word info mɔtɔw   1  
87 to swell word info yɪɣ (**riÉ£a) 23  
88 to squeeze word info ßiɣiy (lʊ) squeeze (out) (***ßaÉ£ir) 16  
89 to hold word info tɪy (**tauri) 35  
90 to dig ɣil (*keli) 1  
91 to buy wɪl (*poli) 1  
92 to open, uncover wak   1?  
92 to open, uncover ʊw open earth oven    
93 to pound, beat word info kpʷʊs   17?  
94 to throw word info yim to stone, throw a stone    
94 to throw word info suwyɛɣ to throw in gen.    
95 to fall word info kpʷɪsdi      
95 to fall word info sisɣɔy   20  
96 dog      
97 bird nɛ-mɛn (*manuk) 1  
98 egg nɪ-tlɪ-n its egg(s) (*qatoluR) 1  
99 feather n-ili mɛn hair of bird (*pulu + *m) 1  
100 wing na-mnɪ mɛn wing/arm of bird (see hand) (*banic + *) 2  
101 to fly ɣap fly flapping wings (*kapak) 36  
102 rat na-ɣhʊw (*kasupe) 3  
103 meat/flesh nɪ-phɔɰ (*pisiko) 10  
104 fat/grease na-ɣyak   39  
105 tail na-ɣlɔ-n its tail (**É£olo) 24  
106 snake na-ŋmʷat (*mÊ·ata) 12  
107 worm (earthworm) ni-slat   1, 8  
108 louse word info ni-ɣit   1  
109 mosquito nɛ-nɛm (*ñamuk) 1  
110 spider na-myaw (**marawa) 32  
111 fish nʊ-mʊmʊ   81  
112 rotten word info sakpʷ   53?  
113 branch word info nɪ-wtɪ-n its branch    
114 leaf na-yɔ-n its leaf (*raun) 1  
115 root nʊ-ɣʊyɣʊyɪ-n its roots (**koaÊ€i) 2, 41  
116 flower na-twɪh (**tawaÉ£as) 34  
117 fruit n-ɪwa-n its fruit (*puaq) 1, 26  
118 grass na-plih (*paliji) 1  
119 earth/soil nɪ-ßɪtan (?*patu 'st) 1?  
120 stone nɛ-ßɛt (*patu) 1  
121 sand nɪ-ßɪthiylɛ (*patu 'sto)    
122 water word info nɪ-bɪ (**bei) 28  
123 to flow lɔŋ   61  
124 sea na-lam deep sea, ocean (*napon 'su) 14  
124 sea na-naw sea, lagoon 42  
125 salt na-naw (*napon 'su) 30  
126 lake nɪ-bɪ liwo big water 21  
127 woods/forest nɪ-ŋmʷɪt (*motus) 60  
128 sky alɣɛ above (**lakau 's) 35?  
129 moon nʊ-wʊl (*pulan) 1  
130 star ni-ßit (*pituqun) 1  
131 cloud word info nɪ-kpʷɪykpʷɛy   38  
132 fog na-myɪp   3, 32  
133 rain na-sŋmʷal      
134 thunder nɛ-lɛŋ-ßayßay stamping wind 15, 84  
135 lightning nɪ-ßɪl (*p(w)ilak) 26  
136 wind nɛ-lɛŋ (*laÅ‹it 's) 1, 77  
137 to blow word info yip a (**rißi) 40  
137 to blow word info yip b. 40  
137 to blow word info wɛyɛh      
138 warm word info nɛ-sɛw   42  
139 cold word info nɔ-mɔmyiy (*madridri�) 1  
140 dry word info mah dry river (*mama) 11  
140 dry word info mɛyɛŋ dry wood 1, 85  
141 wet nɛ-sŋmʷal   43  
141 wet nɛ-sŋɛy      
142 heavy nɪ-dɪw   79  
143 fire n-ɛp (*api) 1  
144 to burn word info bɪ n-ɛp hiy set fire to 42  
145 smoke word info na-hʊ (**asu-a ?) 2  
146 ash nʊ-wʊwʊ (*qapu-a (?) 1?  
147 black nɛ-mlɪmlɪɣ (**maliÉ£o) 41  
148 white na-kpʷaɣkpʷaɣ   13  
149 red na-lawlaw (**lawa 'br) 52?  
150 yellow nɔ-ŋɔyŋɔy   9  
151 green na-ŋmʷaŋmʷal   43?  
152 small nu-su   81, 83?  
153 big ni-lwo (**liwoa) 111  
154 short word info na-maltɪ      
155 long word info nɛ-hyɔ      
156 thin word info nɛ-mßinßin   1  
157 thick word info nɛ-mtɪmtɪl (*matolutol) 3  
158 narrow nɔ-kɔkɔk   22?  
159 wide nɛ-twɔl   34  
160 painful, sick nɔ-ɣɔm sick (**É£ob) 50  
160 painful, sick nɛ-mɛmɛh painful 1  
161 shy, ashamed mamayɣɛ (**maraÉ£ai) 34  
162 old word info tamayɣɛ (*qata-mara) 132  
163 new nɛ-ɣyakpʷ (*karabwa) 9  
164 good nɪ-wɪ (**wia) 1 or 43? 1  
165 bad, evil nɛ-hɛt (*saqat) 1  
166 correct, true hɪywɪ      
167 night nʊ-kpʷʊŋ (*boÅ‹i) 1  
168 day na-myɛn daylight (**ma-raqan) 6  
168 day nʊ-kpʷʊŋ   16  
169 year n-ɪtɛ (*taun) 1  
170 when? word info ŋɪh in future (*Å‹aican) 1  
170 when? word info aŋɪh in past 1  
171 to hide word info takpʷ bat (**tabwaß) 32?  
172 to climb word info yɛm (**rabit) 37  
173 at lɛ- (*lo) 20  
174 in, inside lɛlɔ (*lo lolo) 1  
175 above apwɔ (*a-papo) 2  
176 below lʊ-kpʷʊltɛ      
177 this ɣʊh      
178 that nɛn   1?  
179 near iskpʷɛt      
180 far yɛh (**rasu) 32  
181 where? word info aßɛ (*pea) 3, 35  
182 I (*n-au) 1, 21, 22  
183 thou nɪk (*nigo) 1, 17, 18  
184 he/she (*-a) 1  
185 we word info ɣɪn (**kinta +) 1  
185 we word info kɛmɛm   E42  
186 you kimi (cf. kamiu) 1, 13  
187 they kɪy (*-ra) 1, 70  
188 what? word info na-hap (*sapa) 1  
189 who? word info (*sei) 1  
190 other tɛɣha (**-sae) 60  
191 all dɛl   15  
192 and   30  
193 if sɔwɔ   32?  
194 how? word info kpʷɛlɛ aßɛ lit. like where    
195 no, not tatɛh   10  
196 to count ßatah      
197 One word info ßi-twaɣ (**tuwale) 9  
198 Two word info ßʊ-yʊ (*rua) 1  
199 Three word info ßɪ-tɪl (*tolu) 1  
200 Four word info ßɪ-ßɛt (*pati) 1, 65  
201 Five word info tɪßɪlɪm (*?? + *lim) 1  
202 Six word info lɛßɛtɛ (**laßea-) 20  
203 Seven word info lißiyʊ (**laßea-) 13  
204 Eight word info lɛßɛtɪl (**laßea-) 5, 7  
205 Nine word info lɛßɛßɛt (**laßea-) 20  
206 Ten word info sɔŋwul (*saÅ‹apulu) 5  
207 Twenty word info sɔŋwul yʊ   9  
208 Fifty word info sɔŋwul tɪßɪlɪm   x  
209 One Hundred word info ŋmʷɛldɪl ßaɣ-tiwaɣ hundred time-one (**mwele-do) 35  
210 One Thousand word info tɛy ßaɣ-tiwaɣ thousan (**tari + *)d time-one 13  

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