language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: S.W. Palawano

Source/Author:  Bill Davis 
Notes:  (Author is translator with New Tribes Mission, working among SWP since 1982)

I will use our orthography, since it is a simple sound system. We do not write the final glottal but I will use an apostrophe for that and for intervocalic glottal; voiceless stops are unaspirated; <ng> represents the velar nasal phoneme; <l> is high-tongued; <r> is flapped; stress is penultimate unless I say "final" in the author annotation column; there are 4 vowel phonemes (i: high front, a: low central; a slightly rounded mid vowel further back than a schwa but not quite "open o" of 'caught.' for which we use the letter <e>; and a high back rounded. We use both <o> and <u> in the orthography as a bridge to reading Tagalog... there is non-phonemic range of sound which corresponds somewhat to the rules of the orthography (last vowel of word: write as <o>, double is <oo>, otherwise, <u>. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Bill Davis  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Philippine:Greater Central Philippine:Palawanic 
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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand elima (final) 1  
2 left gibang   24  
3 right kewanan   1  
4 leg/foot tiked (final)    
5 to walk panew root; with -um- 2  
5 to walk manew irrealis 2  
6 road/path dalan (final) 1  
7 to come ato' literally "here/come here"    
7 to come mato' irrealis    
8 to turn word info isi' (final); literally "to take"    
8 to turn word info misi' et gibang "turn left" (irrealis)    
8 to turn word info misi' et kewanan "turn right" (irrealis)    
8 to turn word info misi' et debdeb "go straight" (chest) (irrealis)    
9 to swim langoy   1  
9 to swim lumangoy   1  
9 to swim meglangoy   1  
10 dirty meridi'      
11 dust elikabok   1  
12 skin kulit   1  
13 back word info likod (final) 1  
14 belly berebewang (final) is lower abdomen    
14 belly beteng stomach (internal) and upper belly (outer)    
15 bone tulang   1  
16 intestines tine'i small intestine 21  
16 intestines bituka large intestine 21  
17 liver atey   1  
18 breast dudo'      
19 shoulder ebaga      
20 to know, be knowledgeable seod (final) (no glottal between); as verb "to learn"    
20 to know, be knowledgeable keseudan tenseless "know" (final) with genitive agent    
20 to know, be knowledgeable meseudan (final)    
21 to think pikir   22  
21 to think memikir (irrealis) 22  
22 to fear takot   1  
22 to fear tumakot (irrealis) 1  
23 blood dugo' (final) 16  
24 head ulo   1  
25 neck lieg (final) (no glottal)    
26 hair word info buek (final) (no glottal between in most subdialects) 1  
27 nose edong      
28 to breathe ginawa   1  
28 to breathe megginawa (irrealis) 1  
29 to sniff, smell arek      
29 to sniff, smell marek (irrealis)    
29 to sniff, smell erkan (final)    
30 mouth munong lips    
30 mouth baba' mouth opening 1  
31 tooth nipen tooth    
31 tooth bigang molar    
31 tooth tango eye tooth    
32 tongue dila'   4  
33 to laugh kesit (most basic of many words)    
33 to laugh kumsit (irrealis)    
34 to cry siak (final) (no glottal)    
34 to cry sumiak (final)    
35 to vomit suka   9  
35 to vomit sumuka   9  
35 to vomit kesuda   9  
36 to spit ibeg      
36 to spit mibeg (final) 47  
37 to eat kumaan (final) = eat something    
37 to eat kaan (final) 1  
37 to eat mengaan (final) = eat meal    
38 to chew word info sepa'      
38 to chew word info megsepa' (irrealis)    
39 to cook word info iluto'      
39 to cook word info meg'iluto' (irrealis)    
40 to drink inom   1  
40 to drink minom (final) 1  
41 to bite kagat   1  
41 to bite kumagat (irrealis) 1  
42 to suck sepsep   1  
42 to suck megsepsep (final) 1  
43 ear telinga (final) 1  
44 to hear kingeg      
44 to hear kumingeg (final)    
44 to hear pekingeg (final)    
45 eye mata (final) 1  
46 to see mebiri' (irrealis)    
46 to see mebiri' look at (intentional)    
46 to see biri'      
47 to yawn wab   1  
47 to yawn megwab (irrealis)    
48 to sleep iga'      
48 to sleep miga' (final)    
49 to lie down word info buntol      
49 to lie down word info pebuntol (final)    
50 to dream teginep   30  
50 to dream meneginep (final) 30  
51 to sit adong      
51 to sit peadong (irrealis)    
51 to sit madong (irrealis)    
52 to stand teyeg      
52 to stand tumyeg (final)    
53 person/human being taaw (final)    
54 man/male lelaki   2  
55 woman/female libon   17  
56 child memulek (final)    
57 husband esawa   2  
57 husband esawa na' lelaki (to be specific) 2  
58 wife esawa   1  
58 wife esawa na' libon (to be specific) 1  
59 mother indo' (final)    
60 father ama' (final) 1  
61 house benwa      
62 thatch/roof sapew (final) = roof, 15  
62 thatch/roof pawed thatch 15  
62 thatch/roof pinawed thatch 15  
63 name ngaran   1  
64 to say beres      
64 to say meres (irrealis)    
65 rope tali rope 1  
65 rope siget s/t to tie with 1  
66 to tie up, fasten siget      
66 to tie up, fasten sumiget (irrealis)    
66 to tie up, fasten sigtan Dir. Focus.    
67 to sew word info tehi'      
67 to sew word info tumehi' (irrealis)    
68 needle dagom   1  
69 to hunt word info subok (most generic of many terms)    
69 to hunt word info menubok (final)    
70 to shoot word info pana'   1  
70 to shoot word info megpana' (but we don't have arrows… this would be a small spear gun for crayfish), (irrealis) 1  
71 to stab, pierce seksak      
71 to stab, pierce sumeksak (final)    
72 to hit word info lipak      
72 to hit word info lumipak (final)    
72 to hit word info meglipak (final)    
73 to steal takew   1  
73 to steal menakew (irrealis) 1  
73 to steal laog (to rob face-to-face) 1  
74 to kill imatey      
74 to kill mengimatey (with no object=suicide)    
74 to kill mimatey mimatey    
75 to die, be dead patey   1  
75 to die, be dead matey mimatey 1  
76 to live, be alive biag (final) 13  
76 to live, be alive megbiag   13  
77 to scratch word info kutkot   21  
77 to scratch word info kumutkot (final) 21  
77 to scratch word info mengutkot (final)    
78 to cut, hack word info tigbas = chop with machete or ax    
78 to cut, hack word info tumigbas (final)    
79 stick/wood kayo   1  
80 to split word info randang if long    
80 to split word info bela' (split solid object)    
80 to split word info megbela' (rare), (irrealis)    
80 to split word info ridis spilt a second time    
81 sharp metarem      
82 dull, blunt megaddel      
83 to work word info keradya (most generic for "work")    
83 to work word info megkeradya (irrealis)    
84 to plant luak   26  
84 to plant lumuak (final, plant item) 26  
84 to plant mengluak (final, plant many things) 26  
84 to plant sasad plant rice (final) 26  
85 to choose pili'      
85 to choose memili' (irrealis)    
86 to grow word info dekla'      
86 to grow word info dumekla' (final)    
87 to swell word info baga'      
87 to swell word info maga' (irrealis)    
88 to squeeze word info megpega (irrealis, rare in AF)    
88 to squeeze word info pega      
89 to hold word info kepet      
89 to hold word info kumpet (final)    
90 to dig kali   1  
90 to dig megkali (irrealis)    
91 to buy elen      
91 to buy melen (final)    
92 to open, uncover tumukas = open lid (final)    
92 to open, uncover tukas      
93 to pound, beat word info lebek      
93 to pound, beat word info menglebek (final)    
94 to throw word info bakal      
94 to throw word info megbakal (final)    
94 to throw word info megbakal (final)    
95 to fall word info degdag   56  
95 to fall word info dumegdag (final, 2-place intransitive)    
95 to fall word info medegdag (final, 1-place intransitive)    
96 dog ideng (final)    
97 bird begit      
98 egg tilog      
99 feather bulbol (also = fur, body hair)    
100 wing elad (final) 23  
101 to fly lepad      
101 to fly lumpad (final) 21  
102 rat belab (final) …generic    
103 meat/flesh uned (final)    
104 fat/grease taba' (final)    
105 tail ipos   30  
106 snake seli      
107 worm (earthworm) lungati      
108 louse word info kuto   1  
109 mosquito kuramot      
109 mosquito tegnek other type (final)    
110 spider kelelawa' (final)    
111 fish seda'      
112 rotten word info burok (final) 1  
112 rotten word info meburok (final)    
113 branch word info sanga   2  
114 leaf deon (final) no glottal in most subdialects    
115 root gamot   3  
116 flower burak-burak (final)    
117 fruit bua' (final) no glottal in most subdialects 1  
118 grass kenit-kenit lawn-type grass in general    
119 earth/soil lugta'      
120 stone bato   1  
121 sand egis      
122 water word info danom   1  
123 to flow burbor      
123 to flow murbor (irrealis)    
124 sea dagat (at the beach, the sea is "dagat") 25  
124 sea lawed (while inland the sea and seashore are "lawed") 25  
125 salt asin (final)    
126 lake - they have no lakes; "Sea of Galilee" has been called dagat-dagatan" but this is contrived    
127 woods/forest talon   30  
127 woods/forest geba' virgin forest    
127 woods/forest bengley second growth    
128 sky langit   1  
128 sky lengew-legnew (final) 1  
129 moon bulan (final) 1  
130 star bituen (final) no glottal in most subdialects 1  
131 cloud word info inarak      
132 fog habong      
133 rain delek (final)    
134 thunder duldog (final)    
135 lightning kilat   1  
136 wind deres (final)    
137 to blow word info dumres a. (final)    
137 to blow word info tepiog b. (final)    
137 to blow word info tumepiog b. (final)    
137 to blow word info tepig b. (final)    
137 to blow word info tumepig b. (final)    
138 warm word info meinit hot    
138 warm word info meinit-init warm    
139 cold word info meramig (final) = cold    
139 cold word info meramig-ramig "cool"    
140 dry word info toog a. & b.    
140 dry word info ipetoog (final) to dry s.t.    
140 dry word info tumoog b.    
141 wet basa' (some say mebasa' but most call that a Tagalogism)    
142 heavy mebegat (final)    
143 fire apoy   1  
144 to burn word info tumutong (final) set fire to s.t.    
144 to burn word info deket intransitive "to burn"    
144 to burn word info tutong (act of burning something)    
144 to burn word info dektan intransitive "to burn" (final)    
145 smoke word info tabok   30  
146 ash abo   1  
147 black meitem (final)    
148 white meputi' (final)    
149 red mepula (final)    
150 yellow mekunit      
151 green melunew (also = blue)    
152 small ibon-ibon more generic    
152 small merinek for tiny particle objects    
153 big kela' note above under "grow larger": dekla' is root for verb form with -um-, plural adjective mededekra' (final)    
154 short word info mebaba' same for both a./b.    
154 short word info mepandak (final) for short people    
155 long word info melembo'      
156 thin word info menipis this = flat object    
156 thin word info merinek for rope etc. (final)    
157 thick word info mekapal (final) = flat objects    
157 thick word info measlag (final), for rope etc    
158 narrow mekitib (final) = thin object    
158 narrow mekpit narrow space between (final)    
159 wide mebkang (final)    
159 wide melawak wide space between    
160 painful, sick mesakit      
161 shy, ashamed meleo if incidental rather than personality trait    
161 shy, ashamed megleo      
162 old word info megurang (final)    
163 new bago   1  
164 good menunga (final)    
165 bad, evil meyaat (final)    
165 bad, evil meraat var. (final)    
166 correct, true sugat "correct" (final)    
166 correct, true banar "true" (final) 1  
167 night gebi (final)    
167 night gebii rare (final)    
168 day eldew (final)    
169 year te'on (final) 1  
170 when? word info ngiran (final)    
170 when? word info kengiran if in past (final)    
171 to hide word info tago'   13  
171 to hide word info petago'   13  
172 to climb word info ineik a.    
172 to climb word info mineik climb ladder/tree    
172 to climb word info tindal (final) for ladder    
172 to climb word info tumindal (final) "go up stairs"    
172 to climb word info tungol b. (final)    
172 to climb word info tumungol (final)    
173 at atot "at (near)"    
173 at eset "at (general not too far)"    
173 at doot "at (far)"    
174 in, inside seled "inside" 14  
175 above timbew top surface or above the surface    
176 below sirib (under object) if under a house (which is on stilts) 27  
176 below sirong under shade of tree/eave etc 27  
177 this ito' (final) this is basic form, has 4 forms each of this/that/that, 4 each of here/there/there, and 4 each of "this way/that way/that way"    
178 that yatin (most common and inuitive… see annotation for "this")    
179 near mekabi'      
180 far merayo'      
181 where? word info embe (final)    
182 I ako (final); free nominative; 1  
182 I ko both clitic nominative and genitive 1  
183 thou ikew (final) free    
183 thou ke clitic    
184 he/she ya      
185 we word info kami free 2  
185 we word info kay clitic 2  
186 you kemuyo free    
186 you kew clitic (kaw in some areas)    
187 they diye      
188 what? word info eno      
189 who? word info sino (some areas si'no) 14  
190 other iba "other, another," or "different" (final) 12  
190 other le'in "other, another," or "different" 12  
191 all tanan   24  
191 all ginsan   24  
192 and bo'      
193 if ba'      
194 how? word info enukuan (final); no glottal    
195 no, not diki if "I did NOT shoot the pig"    
195 no, not sala' (final) if not identity; as in that's not a pig    
196 to count itong (also hear bilang)    
197 One word info isa' (final), (not as modifier… that is seng- a bound form)    
198 Two word info dua (final) 1  
199 Three word info telo   1  
200 Four word info epat   1  
201 Five word info lima (final) 1  
202 Six word info enem   1  
203 Seven word info turo' (final)    
204 Eight word info walo   3  
205 Nine word info siam (final) 9  
206 Ten word info sengpulo' (final); here's the seng- this is "ten" as modifer, in rare instances you might hear pulo' alone to mean abstract "ten" or "there were ten(s) of something" 5  
207 Twenty word info duang pulo' (final)    
208 Fifty word info llimang pulo' (final) 1, 2  
209 One Hundred word info senggatos gatos is root used in pireng gatos ("how many hundred?") but not as modifier 4  
210 One Thousand word info sengribo ribo is root used in pireng ribo ("how many thousand?") but not as modifier 6, 5  

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