language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Polynesian

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  From: PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS. Unpublished list, dated 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:Central-Eastern Oceanic:Remote Oceanic:Central Pacific:East Fijian-Polynesian:Polynesian 
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ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *lima   1  
2 left *sema *sema has reflexes in EPn as well as Tongic and NPn. 11  
2 left *maui *maui Outlier isogloss 1  
3 right *sako 'straight, erect' 62  
4 leg/foot *waqe   1  
5 to walk *fano (a) ‘go, move’ 2  
5 to walk *saqele (b) ‘walk, go’ 6  
5 to walk *qalu (c) 1. ‘go’ 2. ‘follow’ 34  
5 to walk *roo (d) ‘go (pl. subject)’ (suppletive plural of fano ‘go, sing. sub.)    
6 road/path *hala   1  
7 to come ? fano mai PPn shows a possible replacement innovation. 1  
8 to turn word info *fuli Possible replacement in PPn 15  
9 to swim *kaukau   5  
10 dirty *kelekele The semantic reconstruction ‘dirty’ for PPn is not entirely convincing. 71  
11 dust *pefu   1  
12 skin *kili   1  
13 back word info *tuqa Replaces 12  
14 belly *manawa ‘belly, stomach’, check Geraghty 1984, who posits PCP *manawa 9  
15 bone *hui   2  
16 intestines      
17 liver *qate   1  
18 breast *susu or *huhu also milk 1  
19 shoulder *uma PPn shows lexical replacement 10  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *qiloa      
21 to think *manatu PPn shows lexical replacement 7  
22 to fear *mataku   1  
23 blood *toto PPn shows lexical replacement. POc *toto ‘sap of plants’ is reconstructable 4  
24 head *qulu   1  
25 neck *ua   18  
26 hair word info *lau-qulu <   40, 3  
27 nose *isu   1  
28 to breathe *maanawa   1  
29 to sniff, smell      
30 mouth *ŋutu ‘mouth, beak’ 2  
31 tooth *nifo   1  
32 tongue *qalelo Lexical replacement in PPn 15  
33 to laugh *kata PPn shows a replacement innovation. 7  
34 to cry      
35 to vomit *lua   8  
35 to vomit *lua-qi   8  
36 to spit *qanu   14  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14  
37 to eat *kai   1  
38 to chew word info *mama   1  
39 to cook word info *saka   2  
40 to drink *inu   1  
41 to bite *uqu-ti Pn: Ton, Niu, Sam, EFu, EUv, Tik, Pil, Ren    
42 to suck *miti   8  
42 to suck *susu (b) ‘suck the breast’ 25  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *roŋo   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kite   1  
47 to yawn *mawawa   1  
48 to sleep *mohe PCP shows a replacement innovation, reflected by Fijian moce, mose, Rotuman mose, PPn *mohe. PCP *mo(c,s)e has probable antecedents in POc but shows semantic shift. 10  
49 to lie down word info *takoto   7  
50 to dream *miti   36  
50 to dream *mohe-miti   36  
51 to sit *nofo   16  
52 to stand *tuqu   2  
53 person/human being *taŋata   1, 66  
54 man/male *taqane PPn shows irregular loss of PCP ŋw. 22, 1  
55 woman/female *fafine   1, 41  
56 child *tama ‘child, son’ PPn *tamaqiti, poss. singular, 6  
57 husband      
58 wife *qasawana ‘wife’ 1  
59 mother *tinana   1  
60 father *tamana   1  
61 house *fale PPn shows lexical replacement 14  
62 thatch/roof      
63 name *hiŋoa PPn shows lexical replacement 6  
64 to say *tala (to speak) tell, relate, (n.) talk, message’ 60  
65 rope *taula PMic *tali ‘rope’,Pn: Niu toua ‘rope’, EFu, Nuk taula, Ren tauga, PCEPn *taura ‘rope’, (b) 9  
66 to tie up, fasten *faqu-si   11  
67 to sew word info *tuitui PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning ‘to sew’ 13  
67 to sew word info *suki PPn continues POC *tuRi as *tui in the sense of thread string through fish or other objects but also has a reduplicated form *tuitui meaning ‘to sew’ 17  
67 to sew word info *tui   13  
68 needle *sika ‘net needle’ 9  
69 to hunt word info *tuli-manu      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce *suki (or stick) 'pierce’ 1  
72 to hit word info *tuki (a) to pound 8  
72 to hit word info *paki (b) to slap    
73 to steal *kai(h,s)aqa      
74 to kill *faka-mate   2  
74 to kill *ta-mate-   2  
75 to die, be dead *mate   1  
76 to live, be alive      
77 to scratch word info *waku      
78 to cut, hack word info *kai(h,s)aqa      
79 stick/wood *suki ‘pierce’to stab (or stick, no one to one match)    
80 to split word info *fasi (a) split s.t., cleave s.t.    
80 to split word info *isi (b) split, cut lengthwise, tear off in long strips    
80 to split word info *faa (c) burst, split open    
80 to split word info *ma-faa (d) burst, split open    
80 to split word info *ma-fola (e) be split open 1  
80 to split word info *fola (e) be split open 1  
81 sharp *ŋata ‘sharp’(as knife) 36  
82 dull, blunt *mata putu      
82 dull, blunt *paku   61  
82 dull, blunt *pengu   12  
82 dull, blunt *penu   12  
82 dull, blunt ?*putu For PMP Blust (1993) gives both *dumpul and *pudul. From the latter he derives POc *(b,p)urul. From the former one would expect POc *ru(b,p)ul. There is no standout candidate for PPn or PCP. Geraghty 1983 proposes PEOc *pusuki.    
83 to work word info *quma   1  
84 to plant *too PPn shows lexical replacement.    
85 to choose *fili   1  
86 to grow word info *tupu   1  
87 to swell word info *fufula      
88 to squeeze word info *kumi (a)‘massage’    
88 to squeeze word info *foo (b) ‘squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing’ 47  
88 to squeeze word info *fofoo (b) ‘squeeze flesh or clothes, as in washing’ 47  
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig *keli   1  
91 to buy *fakatau mai PPn shows lexical replacement    
92 to open, uncover *tatala (a door, container)    
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
94 to throw word info *lii ‘cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)’    
94 to throw word info *liaki ‘cast (as line, swing and throw, toss)’    
95 to fall word info *too ‘to fall, drop’    
96 dog No secure POc or PCP reconstr. It is uncertain whether dogs were present in the POc and PCP communities.    
97 bird *manu (+ *lele ‘to fly’) 1  
98 egg      
99 feather *fulu-fulu   1  
100 wing *kapakau   1  
101 to fly *lele PPn loses POc form. 11  
102 rat *kumaa      
103 meat/flesh *kanofi ‘flesh of animal or coconut, kernel or hard core’    
104 fat/grease *momona ‘rich fatty flesh, 1  
105 tail *hiku (of fish) 13  
106 snake *ŋata   12  
107 worm (earthworm) *kelemutu      
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito *namu   1  
110 spider *puŋa-lewelewe   1  
111 fish *ika   1  
112 rotten word info *pala ‘rotten, as overripe fruit or tubers’ 13  
113 branch word info *laqa(-laqa) ‘small branch(es)’ 1  
114 leaf *lau (qi raqakau)   1  
115 root *aka   2  
116 flower *fuŋa   1  
117 fruit *fua (qi ra?akau) 1  
118 grass *mutia grass (generic) 13  
118 grass *mouku      
118 grass *mutie grass (generic) 13  
119 earth/soil *kele   10  
120 stone *maka      
121 sand *qone   1  
122 water word info *faka-ranu *(v.) 'to wash s.t. in fresh water’    
123 to flow *sali as a stream‘flow (?in a small stream), trickle’ 24  
124 sea *wasa If not a diffusion in Fiji-W. Polynesia area. (open) sea 21  
125 salt *masima   3  
126 lake *loto   6  
127 woods/forest *wao ‘bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited’ 14  
128 sky *laŋi   1  
129 moon *marama ‘moon, moonlight’ 7  
130 star *fetuqu   1  
131 cloud word info *qao Probable lexical replacement in PCP/PPn.    
132 fog *kofu   1, 9  
133 rain *quha (noun) 1  
134 thunder *mana ‘thunder, supernatural force’ 37  
135 lightning *quhila   2  
136 wind *mataŋi   1, 66, 67  
137 to blow word info *pupusi (with the breath) (no to) 6  
138 warm word info *mafana   1  
138 warm word info *mafana-fana   1  
139 cold word info *makalili   1, 52  
140 dry word info *matuqu      
141 wet *suu (Vst) ‘watery, wet’ 11  
142 heavy *ma-mafa (b)PEPn *taumafa, *taimafa 1, 67  
143 fire *afi   1  
144 to burn word info *wela-tia ‘burnt’ be alight    
145 smoke word info *qahu   2  
145 smoke word info *qahu-afi   2  
146 ash *refu (-refu) (ashes) 1  
147 black *quli(-quli) PPn shows a replacement innovation.    
148 white *tea   8  
149 red *kula   13  
150 yellow *reŋareŋa,*felo(-felo) ‘yellow’ (also ‘turmeric’),‘yellowish, reddish yellow’    
151 green ? * mata Possibly no primary colour term ‘green’ in POc. 1  
152 small *qiti   1  
153 big *lasi PPn show a replacement innovation.    
154 short word info *pukupuku   11  
155 long word info *loa PPn shows lexical replacement. 12  
156 thin word info *manifinifi (as cloth) 1  
157 thick word info *matolutolu   3  
158 narrow *faa-riki ‘narrow’    
159 wide *faa-lasi wide    
159 wide *lau-lasi wide    
159 wide *lau-efa wide    
160 painful, sick *mamahi (a) painful 1  
160 painful, sick *masaki (b) sick 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maqaa ashamed (?) 1  
161 shy, ashamed *maa ashamed 1  
162 old word info tuai (1) ‘old, of times, (2) late 48  
163 new *foqou   1  
164 good *malie ‘nice, pleasant’Outlier isogloss: *laoi ‘good’    
165 bad, evil *saqa ?‘bad, of improper conduct, unseemly, forbidden’ 1  
166 correct, true      
167 night *poo   1  
168 day *raqani   6  
169 year *taqu   1  
170 when? word info *ŋaiSa   1  
171 to hide word info *funi PT: Motu huni-a ‘to hide’ 1  
172 to climb word info *kake PPn shows lexical replacement 2  
173 at      
174 in, inside *(i) loto PPn shows replacement. PPn has *lalo ‘under, below’ with semantic shift.(hand) 4, 5  
175 above *i luŋa PPn shows lexical replacement. 9  
176 below *lalo PPn shows a replacement innovation. Probably a semantic shift, as suggested by PMic *lalo ‘deep’ 8  
177 this *eni   1  
178 that *era (distant)    
179 near *tata   9  
180 far *mamaqo PPn shows lexical replacement. 13  
181 where? word info *fea   3  
182 I *au (indep.) 1  
183 thou *koe   1  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
185 we word info *kima-tou (excl pl) 2  
186 you      
187 they *kila-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu ‘paucal’)    
187 they *la-tou (where –tou is from *-tolu ‘paucal’) 1  
188 what? word info *hafa   1  
188 what? word info *haa   1  
189 who? word info *hai      
190 other *taha      
191 all *katoa PPn shows a lexical replacement    
192 and      
193 if *rano      
194 how? word info *pe(he)fea PPn shows lexical replacement.    
195 no, not *qikai   4  
196 to count *tau   8  
197 One word info *taha   1  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
200 Four word info *faa   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      

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