language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Oceanic (Pawley)

Source/Author:  Andrew Pawley 
Notes:  from "PROTO OCEANIC AND PROTO POLYNESIAN RECONSTRUCTIONS FOR MODIFIED SWADESH 200 MEANING LIST, WITHOUT SUPPORTING COGNATE SETS", A Pawley 9.8.09. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Penny Gray  Checked By:  
Statistics:   
Classification:  Austronesian:Malayo-Polynesian:Central-Eastern:Eastern Malayo-Polynesian:Oceanic:(Proto) 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

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Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *lima   1  
2 left *mauʀi (hand) 1  
2 left *mawiʀi (hand) 1  
3 right      
4 leg/foot *waqe   1  
5 to walk *pano Oceanic languages often lack a term that specifically refers to walking as a mode of locomotion. It makes more sense to try to reconstruct a verb or verbs meaning ‘to go’. 2  
6 road/path *jalan   1  
7 to come *lako mai   1  
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim *kaʀu   5  
10 dirty      
11 dust *qapuk   1  
12 skin *kulit   1  
13 back word info *takuʀu   12  
14 belly *tian   1  
15 bone *suʀi   2  
16 intestines      
17 liver *qate   1  
18 breast *susu ‘breast, milk’ 1  
19 shoulder *qapaʀa   1  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kila-   18  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *kilala   18  
21 to think *ronrom (a)POc *ronrom (Blust 1993) (b)PROc nan(o,u)mi- ; Given the range of witnesses supporting (a), we can infer that the forms in set (b) reflect an irregular change *nd > n that occurred, perhaps more than once, in certain Vanuatu languages and in Central Pa 28  
22 to fear *matakut   1  
23 blood *draʀaq   1  
24 head *qulu   1  
25 neck *ʀuqa (not throat) 18  
26 hair word info *raun   40  
27 nose *ijuŋ   1  
28 to breathe *mañawa   1  
29 to sniff, smell *ñami-   41  
30 mouth *ŋujuŋ (external)    
31 tooth *nipon   1  
32 tongue *maya   7  
32 tongue *mea   7  
33 to laugh *malip   3  
34 to cry      
35 to vomit *mumuta Two forms must be reconstructed for ‘to vomit’ in POc and PCP: *mumuta and *lua. *mumuta continues a PMP etymon. Rotuman has a contrast between mumufa ‘to vomit spew’ and lua ‘to spit or cast out of the mouth’. Churchward (1941:253) comments 1  
35 to vomit *luaq   8  
36 to spit *qanu-si   14  
37 to eat *kani   1  
38 to chew word info *mamaq   1  
39 to cook word info *tunu   9  
40 to drink *inum   1  
41 to bite *kaʀati-   1  
42 to suck *miji   8  
43 ear *taliŋa   1  
44 to hear *roŋoʀ   1  
45 eye *mata   1  
46 to see *kita   1  
47 to yawn mawap   1  
48 to sleep *maturu Two POc forms are well supported(continues PMP) 1  
49 to lie down word info *qeno   1  
50 to dream *nipi   1  
50 to dream *mipi   1, 37  
51 to sit *nopo   16  
52 to stand *taqur   2  
53 person/human being *taumata   1, 66  
53 person/human being *tamwata   1, 66  
54 man/male *taumwaqane   22, 1  
55 woman/female *papine   1, 41  
56 child *natu   5  
57 husband      
58 wife      
59 mother *tina-ña 'his/her mother' 1  
60 father *tama-ña 'his/her father' 1  
61 house *ʀumwa ‘house, dwelling’ 1  
61 house *pale ‘open sided building, meeting house' 14  
62 thatch/roof *qatop   1  
63 name *qajan (flesh of fish, etc) 1  
64 to say *posa      
65 rope *tali 'cord' 1  
66 to tie up, fasten *paqu-Ci Ci < POc paqu-Ci ‘(1) lash together, (2) construct (house, canoe)’    
67 to sew word info *saqit   2  
68 needle *saʀum   1  
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info *pana   1  
71 to stab, pierce *soka ‘to husk a coconut etc.’ No one to one match. 8  
72 to hit word info *tuki   8  
72 to hit word info *punipalu Blust (1993) posits POc *palu, ‘to pound' 1  
73 to steal *panako   1  
74 to kill *punuq (Blust 1993) 1  
75 to die, be dead      
76 to live, be alive *maqurip   1  
77 to scratch word info *kadru(C) PAn *garuc (Tsuchida 1976) 44  
78 to cut, hack word info      
79 stick/wood *kayu   1  
80 to split word info *pasi ‘split lengthwise’ Several kinds of splitting are lexically, besides stative vs transitive uses of the same verb root.    
81 sharp *tajim 'to sharpen to a point' 1  
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info *quma   1  
84 to plant *tanom   2  
85 to choose *piliq   1  
86 to grow word info *tubuq   1  
87 to swell word info *puke      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info *taŋovi-      
89 to hold word info *kolom *kokom (Blust 1993) (continuing PMP) v. tr. *kumi, kukumi- ‘hold s.t.’    
90 to dig *kali   1  
90 to dig *keli   1  
91 to buy *poli   1  
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info *tuki   2  
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info      
96 dog No secure POc or PCP reconstr. It is uncertain whether dogs were present in the POc and PCP communities.    
97 bird *manuk probably in certain contexts modified by verb 'to fly' 1  
98 egg *katoluʀ   1  
99 feather *pulu   1  
100 wing *kapak   1  
101 to fly *laŋo      
102 rat *kasupe ‘Rattus sp., commensal rats, as opposed, e.g. to large bush rats’ 3  
103 meat/flesh *pisako 'animal flesh'(flesh of fish, etc) 10  
104 fat/grease *momoña rich fatty flesh, grease, oil 1  
105 tail *siku (of fish) 13  
106 snake *mwata   12  
107 worm (earthworm) *baya ‘earthworm, worm (generic)’    
108 louse word info *kutu   1  
109 mosquito *ñamuk   1  
110 spider *lawaq   1  
111 fish *ikan   1  
112 rotten word info *ba(l,r)a ‘overripe’ 13  
112 rotten word info *bobo(k) ? < PMP *bekbek ‘mouldy?    
112 rotten word info *madaʀ ‘overripe’    
113 branch word info *maŋa   3  
114 leaf *rau   1  
115 root *wakaʀ   2  
116 flower *puŋa   1  
117 fruit *puaq   1  
118 grass *paliji ‘grass, generic term’ 1  
119 earth/soil *qumun (earth) oven    
120 stone *patu   1  
121 sand *qone   1  
122 water word info *waiʀ 'water, river' 2  
123 to flow *tape   10  
124 sea *masawa (open) 13  
125 salt *waiʀ tasik (water)    
126 lake *rano   1  
127 woods/forest *wao ‘bush, forest, land that is uncultivated and uninhabited’ 14  
128 sky *laŋit   1  
129 moon *pulan   1  
130 star *pituqon   1  
131 cloud word info *taqe ni laŋ ‘prob. specifically of light clouds’ 36  
132 fog *kaput   1  
133 rain *qusan   1  
134 thunder *kuruk   1  
135 lightning *qusilak   2  
136 wind *mataŋi (breeze) 1, 66, 67  
137 to blow word info *upu (with the breath) 1  
138 warm word info *mapanas   1  
139 cold word info      
140 dry word info *masa 'dry, empty of liquid' Problematic because several senses of 'dry' occur in Pn langs and 200 wordlists vary among these 11  
141 wet *suʀu ‘juice, soup’, No strong candidate for POc, PCP or PPn 11  
142 heavy *mapat   1  
143 fire *api   1  
144 to burn word info      
145 smoke word info *qasu   2  
146 ash *drapu(ʀ)      
147 black *maqeto   1  
147 black *maqito   1  
148 white *purak   3  
149 red *meʀaq 'reddish brown, ?red' 1  
150 yellow *aŋo (-aŋo) ‘yellow’ 9  
151 green      
152 small *rikiq   1  
153 big *lapapt Lynch 2001 reconstrcts POc *lab(w)at 10  
154 short word info *papaq (Blust 1993) 54  
154 short word info *papak (Blust 1993) 54  
155 long word info *ba(l,r)apu      
156 thin word info *manipis   1  
157 thick word info *matolu (as cloth) 3  
158 narrow *kopit   1  
159 wide *lapa (cf. POc *lapa ‘big’) 1  
160 painful, sick *masakit ‘(1) be sick’, (2) ‘be in pain’, (3) ‘hurt, be painful’ 1  
161 shy, ashamed *mayaq under 'ashamed' 1  
162 old word info *matuqa   1  
163 new *paʀaqu   1  
164 good *ma-pia Blust 1993 1  
165 bad, evil *saqat   1  
166 correct, true *bonor 'true' 1  
167 night *boŋi   1  
168 day *qaco   5  
169 year *taqun   1  
170 when? word info *ŋa-ijan   1  
171 to hide word info *puni   1  
172 to climb word info *sake   2  
173 at      
174 in, inside *(i)ralom   4, 1  
175 above *atas   1  
176 below *papaq   1  
177 this *eni   1  
177 this *ani   1  
178 that      
179 near *tata   9  
180 far *sauq   1  
181 where? word info *pea   3  
182 I *au I (indep.) 1  
183 thou *iko   1  
184 he/she *ia he (indep.) 1  
185 we word info *kami   2  
186 you      
187 they *ira   1  
188 what? word info *sapa   1  
188 what? word info *saa   1  
189 who? word info *sai   1  
190 other *liqa ‘additional, another’ 2  
191 all *udolu      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info *kuya (v.st) be how, in what manner or condition 1  
195 no, not *tika(i)   4  
196 to count      
197 One word info *sa   1  
197 One word info *sakai   8  
197 One word info *tasa   1  
198 Two word info *rua   1  
199 Three word info *tolu   1  
200 Four word info *pati   1  
200 Four word info *pat   1  
201 Five word info *lima   1  
202 Six word info      
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info      
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      

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