language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Southwestern Tai

Source/Author:  Nanna L. Jonsson 
Notes:  Source: Jonsson, Nanna L. (1991) Proto Southwestern Tai. Ph.D dissertation, available from UMI and SEAlang.net on http://sealang.net/crcl/proto/

Also consulted: Li, Fang Kuei (1977) A Handbook of Comparative Tai. University of Hawai'i Press.

PAN & PMP reconstructions, given for reference, are not necessarily potential cognates. They have been sourced from: Blust, R. (1999). Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: Some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics. In Zeitoun, E., & Li, P. J-K., Selected Papers From the 8th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei, Taiwan: Academica Sinica.

Proto-tones are represented as A, B, C, and D. D occurs in "dead syllables" (syllables with final stops), while A, B, and C are "live syllables" (syllables ending in vowels, semivowels, and nasals). In Li's system, 1 refers to proto-voiceless initial consonants, and 2 to proto-voiced initial consonants. For D1, S refers to proto-short vowels, and L to proto-long vowels. 
Problems:  Where Nanna L. Jonsson does not provide any reconstructions, I have instead used Fang-Kuei Li's SW-Tai reconstructions. Li's tones differ markedly from those of Jonsson's.

I have also checked proto-forms against Titima Suthiwan's list of loanwords in Thai/Siamese (Suthiwan, Titima. 2009. "Thai vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2073 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/23.) 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 193
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 0
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Be-Tai:Tai-Sek:Tai:Southwestern 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 3 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *mɯ A4 PAN *(qa)lima ? 1  
2 left *zaay C4 PAN *ka-wiʀi ? 46  
3 right *Xwa A1 PAN *ka-wanaN ? 1  
4 leg/foot *tin A2   12  
5 to walk *Praay A1/ C1      
6 road/path *daaŋ A4 PAN *zalan 1  
7 to come *ma A4 PMP *maʀi 1  
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim *hwaay C1 PAN *Naŋuy ? 1  
10 dirty      
11 dust *fun B1 PMP *qabuk ?    
12 skin *hnaŋ A1 PAN *qaNiC ?    
13 back word info *hlaŋ A1 PAN *likud ?    
14 belly *buŋ A4 (?)    
15 bone *ʔduuk DL3 PAN *CuqelaN ?    
16 intestines *say C1 PAN *Cinaqi ? 1  
17 liver *tap DS2 PAN *qaCay ?    
18 breast *nom A2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *nunu/*susu ?    
19 shoulder *ʔba B3 PAN *qabaʀa ?    
20 to know, be knowledgeable *ru C4 PAN *bajaq ?    
21 to think *git DS4      
22 to fear *klua A2      
23 blood *lɯat DL4 PAN *daʀaq ?    
24 head *hrua A1 PAN *qulu ? 1  
25 neck *ɣɔ A4      
26 hair word info *Prom A1 PAN *bukeS ?    
27 nose *ʔdaŋ C3 PAN *mujiŋ / PMP *ijuŋ ?    
28 to breathe      
29 to sniff, smell *ʔdom A3      
30 mouth *paak DL2 PMP *baqbaq ? 1  
31 tooth *van A2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *nipen ? 1  
32 tongue *lin C4 PMP *dilaq ?    
33 to laugh *Xrua A1 PAN *Cawa ?    
34 to cry *hay C1 PAN *Caŋis ?    
35 to vomit *raak DL4 PAN *utaq ?    
36 to spit *ɣaay A4 PMP *luzaq ?    
37 to eat *kin A2 PAN *kaen 1  
38 to chew word info      
39 to cook word info      
40 to drink      
41 to bite      
42 to suck      
43 ear      
44 to hear      
45 eye      
46 to see      
47 to yawn      
48 to sleep      
49 to lie down word info      
50 to dream      
51 to sit      
52 to stand      
53 person/human being      
54 man/male      
55 woman/female      
56 child      
57 husband      
58 wife      
59 mother      
60 father      
61 house      
62 thatch/roof      
63 name      
64 to say      
65 rope      
66 to tie up, fasten      
67 to sew word info      
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal      
74 to kill      
75 to die, be dead      
76 to live, be alive      
77 to scratch word info      
78 to cut, hack word info      
79 stick/wood      
80 to split word info      
81 sharp      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant      
85 to choose      
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
91 to buy      
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info      
96 dog      
97 bird      
98 egg      
99 feather      
100 wing      
101 to fly      
102 rat      
103 meat/flesh      
104 fat/grease      
105 tail      
106 snake      
107 worm (earthworm)      
108 louse word info      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
111 fish      
112 rotten word info      
113 branch word info      
114 leaf      
115 root      
116 flower      
117 fruit      
118 grass      
119 earth/soil      
120 stone      
121 sand      
122 water word info      
123 to flow      
124 sea      
125 salt      
126 lake      
127 woods/forest      
128 sky      
129 moon      
130 star      
131 cloud word info      
132 fog      
133 rain      
134 thunder      
135 lightning      
136 wind      
137 to blow word info      
138 warm word info      
139 cold word info      
140 dry word info      
141 wet      
142 heavy      
143 fire      
144 to burn word info      
145 smoke word info      
146 ash      
147 black *ʔdam A3 PMP *ma-qitem ? 1  
148 white *Xaaw A1      
149 red *ʔdɛŋ A3 PAN *ma-taNah / PMP *ma-iʀaq ?    
150 yellow *hlɯaŋ A1 PMP *ma-kunij ?    
151 green *Xiaw A1 PAN & PMP *mataq ?    
151 green *khriaw A1 PAN & PMP *mataq ?    
152 small *lekD2S Fang-Kuei Li    
153 big *hñaɯ B1 PAN *ma-ʀaya ?    
154 short word info *lek D2S Fang-Kuei Li    
154 short word info *nɔɔi C2 Fang-Kuei Li    
155 long word info *jaaw A4      
155 long word info *ri A4      
156 thin word info *ʔbaaŋ A3      
157 thick word info *hna A1      
158 narrow *gap DS4      
159 wide *kwaaŋ C2 Chinese ?    
160 painful, sick *khray C1 feverish    
161 shy, ashamed *ʔaay A3 PAN *ma-Siaq ? 1  
162 old word info *thaw C1 PAN *ma-tuqaS ? 1  
163 new *hmaɯ B1 PAN *ma-baqeʀu ? 1  
164 good *ʔdi A3      
165 bad, evil *raay C4 PAN *kuya ?    
166 correct, true *mɛn C4 PMP *ma-bener ?    
166 correct, true *man C4 PMP *ma-bener ?    
167 night *ɣɯn A4 PAN *beʀŋi ?    
168 day *wan A4 PAN *qalejaw ?    
169 year *pi A1      
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info *zɔŋ B4      
172 to climb word info *pin A4      
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above *hnɯa A1 also means "north"    
176 below *taɯ A2 also means "south"    
177 this *nii C2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *i-ni 1  
178 that      
179 near *klaɯ C2      
180 far *klay A2      
181 where? word info      
182 I *ku A1 PAN *i-aku ?    
182 I *kaw A1 PAN *i-aku ?    
183 thou *mɯŋ A4      
183 thou *maɯ A4      
184 he/she *man A4      
185 we word info *raw A4      
186 you *su A1      
187 they *khlau A1 Fang-Kuei Li    
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other *ʔɯn B3 PAN *duma ?    
191 all *daŋ A4/C4 PAN *amin ?    
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count *ʔaan B3 compare Tagalog "bílaŋ"    
197 One word info *hnɯŋ Tai form    
198 Two word info *sɔŋ A1 Tai form; PAN *duSa ?    
199 Three word info *saam A1 Middle Chinese: sam    
200 Four word info *si B1 Middle Chinese: si    
201 Five word info *ha C1 Old Chinese: ŋagx    
202 Six word info *hrok DS1 Middle Chinese: ljuk    
203 Seven word info *cet DS2 Middle Chinese: tshjet    
204 Eight word info *pɛt DL2 Middle Chinese: pat    
205 Nine word info *kaw C2 Middle Chinese: kjəu    
206 Ten word info *sip DS1 Middle Chinese: zjep    
207 Twenty word info *zaaw A4 North Siamese form    
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info *paak DL2 Chinese    
210 One Thousand word info *riŋ A4 Chinese ?    

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