language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Southwestern Tai

Source/Author:  Nanna L. Jonsson 
Notes:  Source: Jonsson, Nanna L. (1991) Proto Southwestern Tai. Ph.D dissertation, available from UMI and SEAlang.net on http://sealang.net/crcl/proto/

Also consulted: Li, Fang Kuei (1977) A Handbook of Comparative Tai. University of Hawai'i Press.

PAN & PMP reconstructions, given for reference, are not necessarily potential cognates. They have been sourced from: Blust, R. (1999). Subgrouping, circularity and extinction: Some issues in Austronesian comparative linguistics. In Zeitoun, E., & Li, P. J-K., Selected Papers From the 8th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. Taipei, Taiwan: Academica Sinica.

Proto-tones are represented as A, B, C, and D. D occurs in "dead syllables" (syllables with final stops), while A, B, and C are "live syllables" (syllables ending in vowels, semivowels, and nasals). In Li's system, 1 refers to proto-voiceless initial consonants, and 2 to proto-voiced initial consonants. For D1, S refers to proto-short vowels, and L to proto-long vowels. 
Problems:  Where Nanna L. Jonsson does not provide any reconstructions, I have instead used Fang-Kuei Li's SW-Tai reconstructions. Li's tones differ markedly from those of Jonsson's.

I have also checked proto-forms against Titima Suthiwan's list of loanwords in Thai/Siamese (Suthiwan, Titima. 2009. "Thai vocabulary" In: Haspelmath, Martin & Tadmor, Uri (eds.) World Loanword Database. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library, 2073 entries. http://wold.livingsources.org/vocabulary/23.) 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 193
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 0
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Be-Tai:Tai-Sek:Tai:Southwestern 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 3 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *mɯ A4 PAN *(qa)lima ? 1  
2 left *zaay C4 PAN *ka-wiʀi ? 46  
3 right *Xwa A1 PAN *ka-wanaN ? 1  
4 leg/foot *tin A2   12  
5 to walk *Praay A1/ C1      
6 road/path *daaŋ A4 PAN *zalan 1  
7 to come *ma A4 PMP *maʀi 1  
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim *hwaay C1 PAN *Naŋuy ? 1  
10 dirty      
11 dust *fun B1 PMP *qabuk ?    
12 skin *hnaŋ A1 PAN *qaNiC ?    
13 back word info *hlaŋ A1 PAN *likud ?    
14 belly *buŋ A4 (?)    
15 bone *ʔduuk DL3 PAN *CuqelaN ?    
16 intestines *say C1 PAN *Cinaqi ? 1  
17 liver *tap DS2 PAN *qaCay ?    
18 breast *nom A2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *nunu/*susu ?    
19 shoulder *ʔba B3 PAN *qabaʀa ?    
20 to know, be knowledgeable *ru C4 PAN *bajaq ?    
21 to think *git DS4      
22 to fear *klua A2      
23 blood *lɯat DL4 PAN *daʀaq ?    
24 head *hrua A1 PAN *qulu ? 1  
25 neck *ɣɔ A4      
26 hair word info *Prom A1 PAN *bukeS ?    
27 nose *ʔdaŋ C3 PAN *mujiŋ / PMP *ijuŋ ?    
28 to breathe      
29 to sniff, smell *ʔdom A3      
30 mouth *paak DL2 PMP *baqbaq ? 1  
31 tooth *van A2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *nipen ? 1  
32 tongue *lin C4 PMP *dilaq ?    
33 to laugh *Xrua A1 PAN *Cawa ?    
34 to cry *hay C1 PAN *Caŋis ?    
35 to vomit *raak DL4 PAN *utaq ?    
36 to spit *ɣaay A4 PMP *luzaq ?    
37 to eat *kin A2 PAN *kaen 1  
38 to chew word info *hñam C1 PMP *mamaq ?    
39 to cook word info *hruŋ A4 PAN *tanek ?    
40 to drink      
41 to bite *kat DS2 PAN *kaʀat ? 1  
42 to suck *ʔduut DL3      
43 ear *hru A1 PAN *Caliŋa ?    
44 to hear *ñin A4 PAN *tumaNa / PMP *deŋeʀ ?    
45 eye *ta A2 PAN *maCa 1  
46 to see *han A1 PAN *kita or Chinese ?    
47 to yawn *Xraaw A1 PAN *ma-Suab ?    
48 to sleep *nɔɔn A2 Fang-Kuei Li    
49 to lie down word info *nɔɔn A2 Fang-Kuei Li; same as "to sleep"    
50 to dream *fan A1 PAN *Sepi / PMP *hipi ?    
51 to sit *naŋ B2 Fang-Kuei Li    
52 to stand      
53 person/human being *gon A4      
54 man/male *ǰaay A4 PAN *ma-ʀuqaNay / PMP *laki ?    
55 woman/female *ñiŋ A4      
56 child *ʔdek DS3 PAN *aNak 1  
57 husband *Pua A1 PAN *bana ?    
58 wife *mia A4      
59 mother *mɛ B4 Universally common form    
60 father *bɔ B4 Universally common form    
61 house *rɯan A4 PAN *ʀumaq ? 1  
62 thatch/roof *muŋ A4 PAN *Cawali ?    
63 name *ǰɯ B4 PAN *ŋajan ?    
64 to say *wa B4 PMP *kaʀi ?    
65 rope *ǰɯak DL4      
66 to tie up, fasten *Puk DL1      
67 to sew word info *hñep DS1      
68 needle *Xem A1 PAN *zaʀum or Chinese ? 1  
68 needle *Xim A1 PAN *zaʀum or Chinese ? 1  
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info *ʔnɯ PAN *panaq ?    
70 to shoot word info *ñɯ A4 PAN *panaq ?    
71 to stab, pierce *dɛŋ A4      
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal *lak DS4 PAN *Cakaw ?    
74 to kill *Xa C1 Chinese ?    
75 to die, be dead *taay A2 PAN *m-aCay 1  
76 to live, be alive      
77 to scratch word info *kaw A2 PAN *kaʀaw ? 1  
78 to cut, hack word info *tat DS2 PAN *taʀaq ? 1  
79 stick/wood *thu B1 PAN *kaSiw ?    
80 to split word info *Prɛk DL1 PMP *belaq ? 1  
81 sharp *ɣom A3 PAN *Cazem ? 1  
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info *het DS1      
84 to plant *pluuk DL2 PAN *mula ? 1  
85 to choose *lɯak DL4 PAN *piliq ?    
86 to grow word info *ŋɔk DL4      
87 to swell word info *bɔŋ A4 PAN *ʀibawa / PMP *baʀeq ?    
88 to squeeze word info *hriip DL1 PAN *peʀeq ?    
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig *Xut DS1 PAN *kalih ?    
91 to buy *zɯ C4 PAN *beli / *baliw ?    
92 to open, uncover *Xay A1 PMP *buka or Chinese ?    
93 to pound, beat word info *tam A2 PAN *tutuh ?    
94 to throw word info *Xwaaŋ C1 PMP *tudaq ?    
95 to fall word info *tɔk DS2      
96 dog *hma A1 PAN *wasu ?    
97 bird *nokD2S Fang-Kuei Li; PMP *manuk 1  
98 egg *khray B1 PAN *qiCeluʀ ?    
99 feather *Xon A1      
100 wing *pik DL2 PAN *paNid ? ; PMP *kapak 1  
101 to fly *ʔbin A3      
102 rat *hnu A1      
103 meat/flesh *nɯə C2      
104 fat/grease *man A4 PAN *Simaʀ / PMP *meñak ? 2?  
105 tail *hraaŋ A1 PAN *ikuʀ ?    
106 snake *ŋu A4      
107 worm (earthworm) *hnɔn A1      
108 louse word info *hraw A1      
109 mosquito *ñuŋ A4      
110 spider      
111 fish *pla A2      
112 rotten word info *nau B2 Fang-Kuei Li    
113 branch word info *kiŋ B2      
114 leaf *ʔbaɯ A3 PAN *biʀaq ?    
115 root *raak DL4 PAN *ʀameC / PMP *uʀat ? 3?  
116 flower *ʔblɔk DL3 compare Tagalog "bulaklák" 22  
117 fruit *hmaak DL1 PAN *buaq ? 1  
118 grass *hña C1 PAN *Cemel ?    
119 earth/soil *ʔdin A3 PAN *daʀeq / PMP *tanaq ?    
120 stone *hrin A1      
121 sand *zaay A4 PAN *qenay ?    
122 water word info *naam C2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *daNum 1  
123 to flow *hlay A1 PAN *qaluʀ ? 1  
124 sea      
125 salt *klɯa A2 PAN *qasiʀa ?    
126 lake      
127 woods/forest *ʔdoŋ A3      
128 sky *va C4      
129 moon *ʔblɯan A3 PAN *bulaN 1  
130 star *ʔdaaw A3      
131 cloud word info *fa C1      
132 fog *hmɔk DL1      
133 rain *fon A1 PAN *quzaN ?    
134 thunder *phliə A1 Fang-Kuei Li, PAN *deʀuŋ ?    
134 thunder *riə A1 Fang-Kuei Li, PAN *deʀuŋ ?    
135 lightning *mlɛp DL4      
136 wind *lom A4 PAN *bali ?    
137 to blow word info *bat DS4      
138 warm word info *ʔun B3 Chinese ?    
139 cold word info *hnaaw A1      
140 dry word info *hɛŋ C1 PMP *ma-ʀaŋaw or Chinese ?    
141 wet      
142 heavy *hnak DS1      
143 fire *vay A4 PAN *Sapuy ? 1  
144 to burn word info *hmay C1      
145 smoke word info *ɣwan A4      
146 ash *daw B4      
147 black *ʔdam A3 PMP *ma-qitem ? 1  
148 white *Xaaw A1      
149 red *ʔdɛŋ A3 PAN *ma-taNah / PMP *ma-iʀaq ?    
150 yellow *hlɯaŋ A1 PMP *ma-kunij ?    
151 green *Xiaw A1 PAN & PMP *mataq ?    
151 green *khriaw A1 PAN & PMP *mataq ?    
152 small *lekD2S Fang-Kuei Li    
153 big *hñaɯ B1 PAN *ma-ʀaya ?    
154 short word info *lek D2S Fang-Kuei Li    
154 short word info *nɔɔi C2 Fang-Kuei Li    
155 long word info *jaaw A4      
155 long word info *ri A4      
156 thin word info *ʔbaaŋ A3      
157 thick word info *hna A1      
158 narrow *gap DS4      
159 wide *kwaaŋ C2 Chinese ?    
160 painful, sick *khray C1 feverish    
161 shy, ashamed *ʔaay A3 PAN *ma-Siaq ? 1  
162 old word info *thaw C1 PAN *ma-tuqaS ? 1  
163 new *hmaɯ B1 PAN *ma-baqeʀu ? 1  
164 good *ʔdi A3      
165 bad, evil *raay C4 PAN *kuya ?    
166 correct, true *mɛn C4 PMP *ma-bener ?    
166 correct, true *man C4 PMP *ma-bener ?    
167 night *ɣɯn A4 PAN *beʀŋi ?    
168 day *wan A4 PAN *qalejaw ?    
169 year *pi A1      
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info *zɔŋ B4      
172 to climb word info *pin A4      
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above *hnɯa A1 also means "north"    
176 below *taɯ A2 also means "south"    
177 this *nii C2 Fang-Kuei Li; PAN *i-ni 1  
178 that      
179 near *klaɯ C2      
180 far *klay A2      
181 where? word info      
182 I *ku A1 PAN *i-aku ?    
182 I *kaw A1 PAN *i-aku ?    
183 thou *mɯŋ A4      
183 thou *maɯ A4      
184 he/she *man A4      
185 we word info *raw A4      
186 you *su A1      
187 they *khlau A1 Fang-Kuei Li    
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other *ʔɯn B3 PAN *duma ?    
191 all *daŋ A4/C4 PAN *amin ?    
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count *ʔaan B3 compare Tagalog "bílaŋ"    
197 One word info *hnɯŋ Tai form    
198 Two word info *sɔŋ A1 Tai form; PAN *duSa ?    
199 Three word info *saam A1 Middle Chinese: sam    
200 Four word info *si B1 Middle Chinese: si    
201 Five word info *ha C1 Old Chinese: ŋagx    
202 Six word info *hrok DS1 Middle Chinese: ljuk    
203 Seven word info *cet DS2 Middle Chinese: tshjet    
204 Eight word info *pɛt DL2 Middle Chinese: pat    
205 Nine word info *kaw C2 Middle Chinese: kjəu    
206 Ten word info *sip DS1 Middle Chinese: zjep    
207 Twenty word info *zaaw A4 North Siamese form    
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info *paak DL2 Chinese    
210 One Thousand word info *riŋ A4 Chinese ?    

Seen an error? Please let us know:

Save Data: