language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Tai

Source/Author:  Pittayawat Pittayaporn 
Notes:  Pittayaporn, Pittayawat. 2009. Phonology of Proto-Tai. Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Linguistics, Cornell University.

Proto-Tai is ancestral to the Northern Tai, Central Tai, and Southwestern Tai branches of the Tai-Kadai family.

The Proto-Tai tones are:
*A: level & modal
*B: rising & creaky
*C: falling & glottal constriction
*D: rising

Proto-Austronesian reconstructions are from Pittayaporn's dissertation. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 185
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 8
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Be-Tai:Tai-Sek:Tai 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 13 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *mwɯ: A   1  
2 left      
3 right      
4 leg/foot *p.qa: A leg, foot - PAN *paqa ‘thigh’ 42  
4 leg/foot *ti:n A   12  
5 to walk *pra:j C   54  
6 road/path *ʰrwɤn A   27  
7 to come *ʰma: A   1  
7 to come *C̬.tɤŋ A to arrive -PAN *dateŋ 4  
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim *lo:j A   64  
10 dirty      
11 dust      
12 skin *ʰnaŋ A   56  
13 back word info *ʰlaŋ A   66  
14 belly *dwu:ŋ C   47  
15 bone *C̥.duk D   1?  
16 intestines *saj C   48  
17 liver *tap D   1?  
18 breast      
19 shoulder *C̥.ba: B PAN *qabáɣa 1?  
20 to know, be knowledgeable *rɯ:w C   57  
21 to think      
22 to fear *ʰla:w A PAN *talaw 43  
22 to fear *ja:n C      
23 blood *lɯət D   28  
24 head *kraw C   33  
24 head *truə A   23  
25 neck *ɣo: A   52  
26 hair word info *prɤm A   47  
27 nose *ɗaŋ A   1  
28 to breathe      
29 to sniff, smell *ɗɤm A   39  
30 mouth *pa:k D   1?  
31 tooth *wan A   1  
32 tongue *li:n C   36  
33 to laugh *krɯəw A   72  
34 to cry *t.haj C to weep, PAN *táŋic 49  
35 to vomit *rwɯək D   23  
36 to spit      
37 to eat *kɯɲ A   1  
38 to chew word info *giəw C   41  
39 to cook word info *truŋ A   66  
40 to drink      
41 to bite *kat D to take a bite 1  
41 to bite *C̬.qɤp D to bite 29  
42 to suck      
43 ear *krwɯ: A   8  
44 to hear *ŋin A   33  
45 eye *p.ta: A PAN *matá 1  
46 to see *tran A   67  
47 to yawn *ʰra:w A   17  
48 to sleep *nwɯ:n A   66  
49 to lie down word info *nwɯ:n A   56  
50 to dream *hwan A   8  
51 to sit *naŋ B   65  
52 to stand *C̥.ɟɯ:n A   46  
53 person/human being *ɢwɯn A   32  
54 man/male *ʑa:j A   55  
55 woman/female *na:ŋ A lady    
56 child *lɯ:k D child (offspring) 1?  
56 child *ɗek D child (young person) 42  
57 husband      
58 wife *miə A   44  
59 mother *me: B   39  
60 father *bo: B   26  
61 house *rɤ:n A PAN *ɣumaq ? 46  
62 thatch/roof      
63 name *ɟɤ: B   30?  
64 to say      
65 rope *ɟɤ:k rope, cord 37  
66 to tie up, fasten *cm̩.ruk D      
67 to sew word info *ɲep D   29  
68 needle *qem A   25  
69 to hunt word info *p.raw B      
70 to shoot word info *ɲɯŋ A   29  
70 to shoot word info *ʰnwɯə C crossbow, PAN *panaq    
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info      
73 to steal *C̬.lak D   34  
74 to kill *qa: C   38  
75 to die, be dead *p.ta:j A PAN *matáy 1  
76 to live, be alive *C̥.dip D raw, not ripe; PAN *qudip 1  
77 to scratch word info *kaw A   1  
78 to cut, hack word info *tac D   91?  
79 stick/wood      
80 to split word info      
81 sharp      
82 dull, blunt      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant *plwɯ:k D   16  
84 to plant *t.nam A to transplant, < PAN *taɬem 2  
85 to choose *kep D to pick    
86 to grow word info *ʰma: C to grow, to rise 26  
87 to swell word info *gaɰ B adjective: swollen 53  
88 to squeeze word info *gal C   56  
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
91 to buy *z.ɟɯ: C   37  
92 to open, uncover *ʔa: C to open the mouth 44  
93 to pound, beat word info *tam A   26  
93 to pound, beat word info *zo:m C to pound rice    
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info *tok D to drop 76  
96 dog *ʰma: A   61  
97 bird *C̬.nok D PAN *manúk ‘bird’ 1  
98 egg *qraj no tone given 41  
99 feather *q.pɯl A   1?  
100 wing *pi:k D   55  
101 to fly *ɓil A   53  
102 rat *ʰnu: A   59  
103 meat/flesh *n.mɤ: C      
104 fat/grease *man A   1?  
105 tail *trwɤ:ŋ A   53  
106 snake *ŋwɯ: A   50  
107 worm (earthworm) *ʰno:l A worm    
107 worm (earthworm) *t.nɯəlA earthworm    
108 louse word info *traw A head louse 26  
108 louse word info *m.lel A body louse 24  
109 mosquito *ɲuŋ A   58  
110 spider *krwa:w A   51  
111 fish *pla: A   64  
112 rotten word info *naw B   34  
113 branch word info      
114 leaf *ɓaɰ A   2?  
115 root *C̬.ra:k D   31  
116 flower *ɓlo:k D   22  
117 fruit *ʰma:k D   24  
118 grass *ʰɲɯə C   44  
119 earth/soil *ɗin   56  
120 stone *tri:l A   29  
121 sand *zwɯəj A      
122 water word info *C̬.nam C PAN *daɬúm 1  
123 to flow *ʰlwaj A   43  
124 sea      
125 salt *klwɯə A   21  
126 lake      
127 woods/forest *ɗoŋ A   72  
128 sky *va: C sky, weather 48?  
128 sky *ɓɯn A sky, heaven 51  
129 moon *ɓlɯən A moon, month 1  
130 star *t.na:w A   49  
131 cloud word info *ʰwɯə C   73  
132 fog *ʰmo:k D   53  
133 rain *C̥.wɯn A   37  
134 thunder *pra: C   60  
135 lightning *m.le:p D   55  
136 wind *C̬.lɯm A   63  
137 to blow word info *pow B with mouth 54  
138 warm word info *ʔun B   69  
139 cold word info      
140 dry word info *χaɰ B dry 83  
140 dry word info *ʰre:ŋC dried up 79  
141 wet *dom A   59?  
142 heavy *ʰnak D   42  
143 fire *wɤj A PAN *sehapúy 1  
144 to burn word info *praw A   65  
145 smoke word info *ɣwan A   55  
146 ash *daw B   43  
147 black *C̥.dam A PAN *tidem 26  
148 white *xa:w A   64  
149 red *C̥.dwi:ŋ A   63  
150 yellow *ʰlɯəŋ A   56  
151 green *xiəw A   50  
152 small *no:j C   73  
153 big *ʰluəŋ A   58  
153 big *ɓɯ:k D rare 62  
154 short word info *tin B   64  
155 long word info *rɯj A   65  
156 thin word info *C̥.ba:ŋ A   39  
157 thick word info *ʰna: A   47  
158 narrow *gap D   46?  
159 wide      
160 painful, sick *k.raj illness, fever    
160 painful, sick *q.wat D cold/flu    
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info *ke: B   92  
163 new *ʰmɤ:l B   34  
164 good *ɗɤj A   87  
165 bad, evil *rwɤ:j C   56  
166 correct, true      
167 night *ɣɯ:n A   51  
168 day *ŋwan A daytime 41?  
168 day *mwɯ: C day (period) 42  
169 year *pi: A   52  
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info      
172 to climb word info *pi:n A   27  
173 at      
174 in, inside *C̥.daɰ A   36  
175 above *ʰnɯə A upstream, above 34  
176 below *taɰ C downsteam, below 50  
177 this *naj C   1  
178 that      
179 near *k.raɰ C   72  
180 far *k.laj A   54  
181 where? word info      
182 I *ku: A weak 1  
182 I *kaw A strong 1  
183 thou *mɯŋ A weak 16  
183 thou *maɰ A strong 15  
184 he/she *mɯn A weak    
184 he/she *man A strong 22  
185 we word info *raw A   11  
186 you      
187 they      
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other *ʔɯ:n B   39  
191 all *daŋ A   53  
192 and *kap D with, and 44  
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not *mi: A weak 81  
195 no, not *ɓaw B strong 1 80  
195 no, not *bo: B strong 2 80  
196 to count *nap D   54  
197 One word info *nɯ:ŋ B   35  
198 Two word info *so:ŋ A PAN *duSa ? 双 (not dusa, chinese loan - LS) 19 L
199 Three word info *sa:m Chinese   L
200 Four word info *si: B Chinese   L
201 Five word info *ha: C Chinese   L
202 Six word info *krok D Chinese   L
203 Seven word info *cet D Chinese   L
204 Eight word info *pe:t D Chinese   L
205 Nine word info *kɤw C Chinese   L
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info *ro:j C   33  
210 One Thousand word info      

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