language.psy.auckland.ac.nz : Austronesian : Crows : Bantu :

Language: Proto-Kam-Sui

Source/Author:  Graham Thurgood 
Notes:  Source: Thurgood, Graham. 1988. "Notes on the reconstruction of Proto-Kam-Sui." In Jerold A. Edmondson and David B. Solnit (eds.), Comparative Kadai: Linguistic studies beyond Tai, 179-218. Summer Institute of Linguistics Publications in Linguistics, 86. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics and the University of Texas at Arlington.

Proto-Kam-Sui tones:
1 = Tone *A, voiceless
2 = Tone *A, voiced
3 = Tone *C, voiceless
4 = Tone *C, voiced
5 = Tone *B, voiceless
6 = Tone *B, voiced
7 = Tone *D, voiceless
8 = Tone *D, voiced
 
Problems:  Thurgood's reconstructions are still preliminary and are derived from limited data sets. 
Data Entry:  Typed By: Andrew C. Hsiu  Checked By:  
Statistics: 
  • Total Data: 128
  • Number of Retentions:
  • Number of Loans: 5
 
Classification:  Tai-Kadai:Kam-Tai:Kam-Sui 
Map  Sorry, no map co-ordinates found for this language. 

Resources:

Change History:

Showing 3 of 7 entries. Show ALL logged changes

Entries:

ID: Word: Item: Annotation: Cognacy: Loan:
1 hand *k-mja1-t   1  
2 left      
3 right *hwa1   1?  
4 leg/foot *kwa1 leg 42  
4 leg/foot *ti:n1 foot 12  
5 to walk *pa:i1 to go, walk 54  
5 to walk *cha:m3 to walk, crawl 75  
6 road/path      
7 to come *hma1 to arrive 1  
7 to come *taŋ1 reach 4  
8 to turn word info      
9 to swim      
10 dirty      
11 dust      
12 skin *hŋra1      
13 back word info *hla:i1 back[bone] 63  
13 back word info *lun2 back, behind    
14 belly *luŋ2   59  
15 bone *tla:k7   4  
16 intestines *khja:i3   47  
17 liver *tap7   1?  
18 breast      
19 shoulder      
20 to know, be knowledgeable      
21 to think      
22 to fear      
23 blood *phla:t7   28  
24 head *kru3-f   33  
25 neck      
26 hair word info *pram1   47  
27 nose *ʔnaŋ1   1  
28 to breathe      
29 to sniff, smell *nun4   38  
30 mouth *pa:k7   1?  
31 tooth *pjwan1   1  
32 tongue *ma2   1  
33 to laugh *kru1   72  
34 to cry *ʔȵe3-i   51  
35 to vomit *trwak7   23  
36 to spit      
37 to eat *ca:n1   27  
38 to chew word info *hma:k7   38  
38 to chew word info *hna:i5   40  
39 to cook word info      
40 to drink *trwap7      
41 to bite *krip7   29  
42 to suck      
43 ear *khra1   27  
44 to hear      
45 eye *thla1   1?  
46 to see *ʔlun1      
46 to see *ɗai3   68  
47 to yawn      
48 to sleep *nu:n2   66  
49 to lie down word info      
50 to dream *pwjan1   8  
51 to sit *dzu:i6-t Chinese   L
52 to stand      
53 person/human being *la:k8 = child    
54 man/male *mpa:n1   52  
55 woman/female *ɓja:k7      
56 child *la:k8   1?  
57 husband *ʔre1   35  
58 wife      
59 mother      
60 father      
61 house *hra:n1   46  
62 thatch/roof      
63 name      
64 to say      
65 rope *ʔla:k7   30  
66 to tie up, fasten      
67 to sew word info      
68 needle      
69 to hunt word info      
70 to shoot word info      
71 to stab, pierce      
72 to hit word info *dai2      
73 to steal *hljak7   34  
74 to kill      
75 to die, be dead *pjai1   1?  
76 to live, be alive *ɗip7 raw, live 1?  
77 to scratch word info      
78 to cut, hack word info *kat7      
78 to cut, hack word info *ka:t7      
79 stick/wood      
80 to split word info *pha5   58  
80 to split word info *hma:k7      
81 sharp *hra:i5 to be sharp 47?  
82 dull, blunt *dip8      
83 to work word info      
84 to plant *mpra1      
84 to plant *ljum2      
84 to plant *ʔdram1 to transplant (rice seedlings)    
85 to choose *la:i6   26  
86 to grow word info      
87 to swell word info      
88 to squeeze word info      
89 to hold word info      
90 to dig      
91 to buy *trai3   35  
92 to open, uncover      
93 to pound, beat word info      
94 to throw word info      
95 to fall word info *tuk7 to drop 76  
95 to fall word info *lai4 fall    
96 dog *k-hma1   61  
97 bird *mluk8   1  
98 egg *krai5   41  
99 feather      
100 wing *pwa5   53  
101 to fly      
102 rat *hnu3   59  
103 meat/flesh *na:n4   58  
104 fat/grease *man2 oil 1  
105 tail *khjut7      
106 snake *dzu:i2   52  
107 worm (earthworm) *dzan4   44  
108 louse word info *nan1''      
109 mosquito      
110 spider      
111 fish *mprai3   64  
111 fish *pa1   64  
111 fish *mum6   63  
112 rotten word info *na:u6   34  
113 branch word info *ʔŋa5   29  
113 branch word info *ciŋ5      
114 leaf *pwa5   2?  
115 root *kja:ŋ1      
116 flower *nuk7''   48  
117 fruit      
118 grass      
119 earth/soil *di6   58  
120 stone *pra1   27  
121 sand      
122 water word info *ȵam3-ti   1?  
123 to flow      
124 sea      
125 salt      
126 lake      
127 woods/forest *ɗuŋ1      
128 sky *ɓun1   51  
129 moon *nüa:n1''   47  
130 star *hmlut7      
130 star *ʔdra:u1   49  
131 cloud word info *m-xwa3   72  
132 fog *muk8   53  
133 rain *xwin1   37  
134 thunder *pra3   60  
134 thunder *lai6      
134 thunder *ti:n3      
135 lightning *ʔdla:p7   55  
136 wind *hlwum1   63  
137 to blow word info *hwa:t7 to blow (wind)    
137 to blow word info *dzup8   1?  
138 warm word info      
139 cold word info *hnu1   72  
140 dry word info      
141 wet *ʔrak7   60?  
142 heavy      
143 fire *pwai1   1  
144 to burn word info      
145 smoke word info      
146 ash *phwu:k7   38  
146 ash phla:u5   39  
147 black *ʔnam1   26?  
148 white      
149 red      
150 yellow      
151 green      
152 small      
153 big      
154 short word info *thrin3   64  
155 long word info *ʔra:i3   65  
156 thin word info *ɓwa:ŋ1   39?  
157 thick word info *ʔna1   47  
158 narrow      
159 wide      
160 painful, sick      
161 shy, ashamed      
162 old word info *ka:u5-v old (of things) 93  
163 new *hmai5   34  
164 good *ɗa:i1   87  
165 bad, evil *hwa:i6-t Chinese   L
166 correct, true      
167 night *ʔȵam5 evening 55  
168 day *hŋwan1   41?  
169 year *mpe1   52  
170 when? word info      
171 to hide word info      
172 to climb word info *cha5 to ascend 26  
173 at      
174 in, inside      
175 above      
176 below *te3   50  
177 this *na:i6   1  
178 that      
179 near *phlai5   73  
180 far *kla:i1-v   54  
181 where? word info      
182 I      
183 thou      
184 he/she      
185 we word info *tra:u1 inclusive 11  
186 you      
187 they      
188 what? word info      
189 who? word info      
190 other      
191 all      
192 and      
193 if      
194 how? word info      
195 no, not      
196 to count *ȵai6'-i      
197 One word info      
198 Two word info *hra1   18  
199 Three word info      
200 Four word info      
201 Five word info *ŋu4 Chinese loanword   L
202 Six word info *ljuk8 Chinese loanword   L
203 Seven word info      
204 Eight word info *pja:t7 Chinese loanword   L
205 Nine word info      
206 Ten word info      
207 Twenty word info      
208 Fifty word info      
209 One Hundred word info      
210 One Thousand word info      

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